Previously, we have proved that the Prophet’s sermon of Arafat, in the Farewell Pilgrimage, included his prediction of the coming of the twelve imams. It also included his recommendations in this regard.
Now, we are to discuss contents of the other five sermons; sermon of Mecca on day of Tarwiya, sermon of the second day, sermon of Al-Kheif Mosque on day of Nafr and sermon of Ghadir.
Although the references of narrations communicated, confusedly, a few reports about contents of these sermons, it is possible to infer that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), through these sermons, provided the entire affairs needed by his nation after him. These prophetic sermons included statements dealing with the following five bases:
1. Base of the humanitarian equity:
– Principal of the humanitarian unity among mankind, and the eradication of the racial discrimination.
– Principal of acting good toward women and the impermissibility of wronging them.
2. Base of unity of the Islamic nation:
– Principal of eradicating the traces, practices and regulations of the pre-Islamic era that are violating the Islamic laws.
– Principal of the Muslims’ fraternity and equity.
– Principal of noticing the private ownership, and illegality of violating the Muslims’ properties.
– Principal of regarding the Muslims’ souls, and illegality of shedding the Muslim’s blood.
– Principal of regarding the Muslims’ honor and dignity, and illegality of abusing each other.
– Principal of maintaining properties and souls of those who speak out the creed of Islam; ‘There is no god but Allah.’
– Principal of sealing prophesy with the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and sealing the nations with his nation.
– Principal of the Prophet’s being the witness on his people in the Hereafter, and their joining him on the Divine Pool.
– Principal of necessity of accuracy in acting, and admonishing against committing the insignificant actions that lead to deviation.
– Principal of warning against forging lies against the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family), and insisting on investigating whatever is ascribed to him.
3. Base of the unity of the Islamic law -Sharia- and the Muslims’ culture.
– Principal of fulfilling the trusts.
– Regulations of the heritage.
– Regulations of the blood money and the retaliation.
– Laws of the rites of the pilgrimage. “From me you should learn the rites.”
4. Bases of the political affairs and the leadership after the Prophet:
– Principal of the prediction of the coming of the twelve imams of the Prophet’s progeny.
– Principal of the importunate adherence to the Quran and the Prophet’s progeny; the two weighty things.
– Principal of nominating Ali as the next leader of this nation, and the first of the twelve imams.
– Principal of keeping on performing the obligatory rites and compliance with the leaders.
– Principal of immortalizing the treaty of Quraish and Kenana on blockading the Hashemites.
– Principal of warning the Quraishis against playing the tyrant after the departure of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family).
– Principal of warning the Prophet’s companions against breaking faith and struggling on power.
5. Base of punition of the dissenters against the prophetic course:
– Principal of cursing those who ascribe themselves to other than their fathers or masters.
Detailed discussion of these bases and principals is inapplicable. Therefore, we are to mention models of these blessed sermons before we refer to topics and examples related.
It is quite clear that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) referred to each of these bases and principals in many occasions before the Farewell Pilgrimage. As a matter of fact, these bases and principals, together with the six sermons, form a coalescing topic that is inseparable. The Prophet’s wording is a revelation completes and explains each other. In every topic, that wording formulates a perfect doctrinal and legislative unity that is contributing in constructing the divine comprehensive edifice of Islam.
FIRST BASE: THE HUMANITARIAN EQUITY
This base is too evident to need any further discussion. Previously, we have referred to a number of related texts of the Prophet’s sermons.
MODELS OF THE PROPHET’S SERMONS IN THE FAREWELL PILGRIMAGE
Ibn Shuba Al-Harrani -died in 350- records on page 30 of his Tuheful Uqoul:
The Prophet’s Sermon In The Farewell Pilgrimage:
Praised be Allah. We praise Him and seek His support and forgiveness. We repent to Him and seek His protection against evils of our souls, and sins of our acts.
He Whomsoever Allah guides, there is no misleading for him, and he whomsoever Allah causes to err, there is no guide for him. I do admit there is no god but Allah, lonelily without any associate, and admit that Mohammed is being His servant and apostle.
O servants of Allah! I do advise you to keep god-fearing. I urge you on acting in the field of His obedience. I seek the Lord’s opening the good before me.
O people! Listen to what I am elucidating to you. I cannot guarantee whether I shall meet you the next year in this situation.
O people! Till you shall meet your Lord, your blood and honor are prohibited to be abused among you, and sanctified as same as the degree of sanctification of this day in this country. Have I conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.
He whoever has a trust in hand, should defray it to the depositor.
Usury of Jahilism* is revoked. The first usury I am to revoke is Al-Abbas Bin Abdul-Muttelib’s.
Retaliation of Jahilism is revoked. The first retaliation I am to revoke is Amir Bin Rabia Bin Al-Harith Bin Abdil-Muttelib’s.
Except for custody of the Kaba and watering the pilgrimages, all the practices of the Jahilism are revoked.
Retaliation is the ruling of murders. What is killed by a stick or a stone is decided as a quasi-murder. Its blood money is one hundred camels. Any increase on that quantity is a Jahilite deed.
O people! The Satan despaired of being obeyed in this land. But he pleased to be obeyed in other acts. They are your insignificant sins.
O people! Postponing (of the sacred months) is only an addition in unbelief, wherewith those who disbelieve are led astray, violating it one year and keeping it sacred another, that they may agree in the number of months that Allah has made sacred.
Time has rotated as same as the first day on which the Lord created the heavens and the earth. Surely number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah’s ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth, of these four being sacred. Three are consecutive and the fourth is independent. They are Dhu’l-Qada, Dhu’l-Hijja, Muharram and Rajab that comes between Jumada and Shaban. Have I conveyed? O Allah! Be the witness.